Tag Archives: dyslexia

Are international schools suitable for all children?

Within an international school community people are always on the move. Globally mobile families with children may stay in one place for a number of years or may need to move after a couple of years. People working for international businesses and the self employed may find that they have to move as market conditions dictate.  And these moves can be sudden. Diplomats, military and NGO employees may have a fixed term posting. Teachers in international schools typically work on renewable contracts of one or two years and have to decide early in the school year if they want to renew them. As families move they need to find a new school for their children. These highly mobile people are sometimes called ‘global nomads’ and their children are sometimes called ‘third culture kids’ or TCKs.

There are many advantages for children as they move from one international school to another, or in and out of a national education system. They get to experience different cultures and may be exposed to an international perspective that may be lacking at ‘home’. They are likely to have friends from many countries, and get to visit amazing places. For many children it is also an opportunity to add another language to their mother tongue, with some children becoming proficient in two or more languages. These children often become resilient and independent as they adapt to new circumstances and make new friends.

But not all children are the same and some may find this flexible lifestyle does not suit them.  Some children may find the transition to a new school difficult. Others may find an unfamiliar curriculum and new language demands too much to handle. Some children will have learning challenges, for example dyslexia, and others may have social or emotional differences. The greater the barriers to learning, the greater the challenge. Many international schools may not have the level of support that is available in the national systems of higher income countries. There may also be a stigma attached to learning differences in some countries that is not usual at ‘home’.

It is true that more and more international schools are able to meet a greater range of individual children’s needs and very many children will gain a lot from an international education. Parents need to be aware of their child’s needs and make sure that the school that they choose is able to support all of these needs. This support must continue to be available as the child moves through her schooling.

In a small number of instances an international education may not be the best fit for a child. They may be happier and more successful with the support networks that are available at ‘home’. These networks may include family and friends, as well as educational support. If this is the case parents should not be afraid to put the interests of their child first. Their choice may be between going to a city with a suitable school, or staying at home.

What do you think?

Dictation and Reading Tools – on a Mac

Here are some built in tools that allow the Mac to read aloud and turn our speech into text.

Text to speech (reading) on a Mac

This cool feature is built into the Mac operating system. You may need to activate it. Here’s how:

Quick step-by-step

Open System Preferences > Dictation and Speech

Choose : Text to Speech

Check: Speak selected text when the key is pressed

Current Key: option + esc

Window showing text to speech options
Window showing text to speech options
How does it work?

Select (highlight) the text that you want read to you. Press the option and esc keys together. The text will be read out loud to you.

Part of Mac keyboard: opt and esc keys
Part of a Mac keyboard showing the option and escape keys

If you would like more details, including how to change the voice you can look at this video. The uploader also talks about how this helps with his dyslexia.

 

Dictation on a Mac

Quick step-by-step

Open Preferences > Dictation and Speech

Choose: Dictation – On Button

Press fn (function key) twice

Dictation Dialogue Window
Activation window showing where to turn dictation on
How does it work?

Open your word processor (e.g. word), click the cursor for where you want to start. Press the fn key twice. Speak normally and the text should begin to appear. You will most likely need to do some editing on the text but it is a good way of getting your ideas written down.

Part of Mac keyboard showing function key
Mac keyboard showing function fn key

 

Read & Write for Google Chrome and Drive

These settings will not work with Google Chrome or Drive.  Herer are some videos to add an extension that will work with Google.

Here’s a video about how to add the Read & Write for Google – Chrome Extension

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaxxeWnlBdk

Here’s some more info about how to use the Read & Write toolbar

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msKY6jTY7kY

Dyslexia and Multi Sensory Language Teaching

Multi sensory language teaching for children with Dyslexia

In an earlier post I wrote that dyslexia is a learning difference that leads to difficulties in reading and writing – which is often most noticeable in spelling. The latest scientific research suggests that the dyslexic brain works differently. Dyslexia is often associated with memory problems but it can affect people across the range of intelligence. Dyslexia is a spectrum of difficulties – with any individual likely to have his or her own strengths and weaknesses.

A multi sensory teaching approach addresses problems people have in visual and auditory memory (interpreting what they see and hear). It also encourages the building of neural- pathways (pathways in the brain) that connect the speech with print. You could call this ‘rewiring the brain’.

Using a multi sensory method teaches children how sounds are made and how they are written. They learn the sounds and the letters that represent them – how they are put together and how they are taken apart. As they write and say the sounds their hands, eyes, ears and voices are working together to make the connections.

Learning language for a child (or adult) with dyslexia is a time consuming and intense undertaking.  The teacher is always needing to assess the needs of the individual learner. The teacher needs to be an expert with time to work with the child.

The pace of learning should be as fast as possible, but as slow as necessary.

Phonics need to be taught in a logical, sequential and organized manner alongside language rules. Despite its irregularities English is 85% predictable and children can be taught to think through language problems.

What works

Most language programmes that work for dyslexic learners include

  • multi sensory practice for symbol learning
  • explicit teaching of letter-sound relationships, syllable patterns and meaningful word parts
  • a lot of successful practice of skills learned
  • fluency building exercises
  • vocabulary instruction
  • spelling skills that are applied in meaningful reading and writing of sentences
  • immediate feedback on mistakes

There are programmes that use the ‘Orton-Gillingham approach’ – incorporating methods described by Dr Orton, Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman in the ‘thirties – and encompassing structured, sequential, multi sensory techniques for teaching written English.

  • Children are discouraged from guessing and skipping words, instead they learn how to analyze and read unknown words.
  • Don’t expect that a dyslexic learner will infer a language concept – direct teaching is needed
  • The teacher needs to continually assess the needs of the individual learner
  • The content must be mastered step-by-step for the student to progress
Conclusion

A dyslexic learner will need a structured, step-by step and multi sensory approach to the learning of language. Their teacher will need to constantly assess progress and adjust the content. With the right support a dyslexic learner can succeed with language.

Source: Multisensory Structured Language Teaching fact sheet. The International Dyslexia Association. Baltimore. Website: http://www.interdys.org

 

What is dyslexia? A simple introduction.

A simple introduction to Dyslexia.

Dyslexia is a learning difference that  leads to difficulties  in reading and writing (often especially noticeable in spelling). Dyslexia is a spectrum of difficulties,without clear-cut boundaries or with a single cause.  Many intelligent people are dyslexic, including some very creative and successful people.

The latest scientific research indicates that the dyslexic brain works differently. Scientists are now able to study the living human brain (for example by using MRI and EEG scanning). They can see that the whole of the brain is used in language activities. How the brain makes its own internal connections will affect how we are able to process language. New connections are made as we learn how to do things and a dyslexic person can create new pathways as they learn how to process language.

It would seem that there are genetic links in dyslexia. If you have a family history of dyslexia you are more likely to be dyslexic yourself. What causes dyslexia and what causes the differences in the brain is far from clear, and open to debate.

Traditionally education values reading and writing . Talented children may be overlooked if they cannot express themselves through writing and they will not get far without reading.

Writing is not a natural process, it is the most complex thing that your brain will ever need to learn. In human development terms we have only been writing for 4000 years – out of tens of thousands of years of communicating.  It takes us many years to learn to read.

The importance of phonics (matching sounds to their written form).

Phonological processing involves the processing of speech sounds and not just hearing. We need to be able to process the sounds correctly and to be able to match them to the letters that represent them. If you can’t process the sounds it is difficult to relate them to their written form. All languages have a phonetic element.

Memory difficulties often found with dyslexia.

Weaknesses in short term or working memory may be a part of dyslexia. Most people have difficulties with remembering the name of someone they have just met – because this information is held in short term memory, which is quickly ‘overwritten’. Once the name is added to your long term memory you are less likely to forget it (you’ve met someone twice and talked to your best friend about them – you remember their name! Most of the time…)

The speed of processing information may be effected. A dyslexic person may need longer to work on a problem and they are likely to need frequent breaks. These problems can become more apparent when there are time pressures and stress (during a timed test for example).

Other memory difficulties may include:

  • Difficulties with organisational skills, such as time management.
  • Difficulties with common sequences such as days of the week, months, the alphabet, times tables.
  • Difficulties in following instructions – not being able to remember and follow a set of instructions.
Self Esteem

A young person with dyslexia may suffer from low self esteem. They may feel that they are stupid and they may think that they are having difficulties that other people are not (such as remembering the name of someone that they have just met). Someone who thinks they a dumb is less likely to keep trying in school.

However, with early intervention and good teaching there is no reason why a child with dyslexia should not be successful at school and in later life.

Conclusion

Dyslexia can be viewed as a spectrum of difficulties that impact on reading and writing as well as everyday activities such as following directions and timekeeping. Recent studies show that there are differences in the brains of dyslexic people, although the causes of these differences are still open to argument. Traditionally children with dyslexia have been disadvantaged at school but with the right support they should be able to succeed and excel at school and in later life.

Source: Developed from notes taken at a Dyslexia workshop presented by Dr Sheena Bell of Northampton University, in conjunction with The Village International Education Center, Bangkok October 2014

Next: Dyslexia and Multi sensory language teaching